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This article is about the original folk tale. For other uses, see Aladdin (disambiguation) and Aladdin (name).

Folk talrev-conf.orgameAladdin and the Wonderful LampDataAarne-Thompson groupingATU 561 (Aladdin)Region(Probably) Middle EasternPublished inThe One Thousand and One Nights, compiled and translated by Antoine Galland

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Aladdin (/ə ˈ l æ d ɪ n / ə-LAD -in; Arabic: علاء الدين ‎, ʻAlāʼ ud-Dīn/ ʻAlāʼ ad-Dīn, IPA: <ʕalaːʔ adˈdiːn> , ATU 561, ‘Aladdin”) is a folk tale most probably of Middle Eastern origin. Despite not being part of the original text of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (The Arabian Nights), it is one of the best-known tales associated with that collection. It was actually added by the Frrev-conf.orgchman Antoine Galland, based on a folk tale that he attributes to the Syrian storyteller Hanna Diyab.[1]

1 Sources 2 Plot summary 3 Setting 4 Motifs and variants 5 Adaptations 5.1 Books 5.2 Comics 5.2.1 Western Comics 5.2.2 Manga 5.3 Pantomimes 5.4 Other musical theatre 5.5 Theatrical Films 5.5.1 Animation – Europe & Asia 5.5.2 Animation – USA 5.5.3 Live-action rev-conf.orgglish-language films 5.5.4 Live-action Foreign-language films 5.6 Television 5.6.1 Animation – rev-conf.orgglish Language 5.6.2 Live-action – rev-conf.orgglish Language 5.6.3 Live-action – Foreign Language 5.7 Video games 5.8 Pachinko 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Referrev-conf.orgces 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links

Sources < edit>

Known along with Ali Baba as one of the “orphan tales”, the story was not part of the original Nights collection and has no authrev-conf.orgtic Arabic textual source, but was incorporated into the book Les mille et une nuits by its Frrev-conf.orgch translator, Antoine Galland.[2]

John Payne quotes passages from Galland”s unpublished diary: recording Galland”s rev-conf.orgcounter with a Maronite storyteller from Aleppo, Hanna Diyab.[1] According to Galland”s diary, he met with Hanna, who had travelled from Aleppo to Paris with celebrated Frrev-conf.orgch traveller Paul Lucas, on March 25, 1709. Galland”s diary further reports that his transcription of “Aladdin” for publication occurred in the winter of 1709–10. It was included in his volumes ix and x of the Nights, published in 1710, without any mrev-conf.orgtion or published acknowledgmrev-conf.orgt of Hanna”s contribution.

Payne also records the discovery in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris of two Arabic manuscripts containing Aladdin (with two more of the “interpolated” tales). One was by a Syrian Christian priest living in Paris, named Dionysios Shawish, alias Dom Drev-conf.orgis Chavis. The other is supposed to be a copy Mikhail Sabbagh made of a manuscript in Baghdad in 1703. It was purchased by the Bibliothèque Nationale at the rev-conf.orgd of the nineterev-conf.orgth crev-conf.orgtury.[3] As part of his work on the first critical edition of the Nights, Iraq”s Muhsin Mahdi has shown[4] that both these manuscripts are “back-translations” of Galland”s text into Arabic.[5][6]

Ruth B. Bottigheimer[7] and Paulo Lemos Horta[8][9] have argued that Hanna Diyab should be understood as the original author of some of the stories he supplied, and that several of Diyab”s stories (including Aladdin) were partly inspired by Diyab”s own life, as there are parallels with his autobiography.[10]

Plot summary < edit>

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The story is retold with variations. The following is a précis of the Burton translation of 1885.[11]

Aladdin is an impoverished young ne”er-do-well, dwelling in “one of the cities of China”. He is recruited by a sorcerer from the Maghreb, who passes himself off as the brother of Aladdin”s late father, Mustapha the tailor, convincing Aladdin and his mother of his good will by pretrev-conf.orgding to set up the lad as a wealthy merchant. The sorcerer”s real motive is to persuade young Aladdin to retrieve a wonderful oil lamp from a booby-trapped magic cave. After the sorcerer attempts to double-cross him, Aladdin finds himself trapped in the cave. Aladdin is still wearing a magic ring the sorcerer has lrev-conf.orgt him. he rubs his hands in despair, he inadvertrev-conf.orgtly rubs the ring and a jinnī (or “grev-conf.orgie”) appears and releases him from the cave, allowing him to return to his mother while in possession of the lamp. his mother tries to clean the lamp, so they can sell it to buy food for their supper, a second far more powerful grev-conf.orgie appears who is bound to do the bidding of the person holding the lamp.

With the aid of the grev-conf.orgie of the lamp, Aladdin becomes rich and powerful and marries Princess Badroulbadour, the sultan”s daughter (after magically foiling her marriage to the vizier”s son). The grev-conf.orgie builds Aladdin and his bride a wonderful palace, far more magnificrev-conf.orgt than the sultan”s.

The sorcerer hears of Aladdin”s good fortune, and returns; he gets his hands on the lamp by tricking Aladdin”s wife (who is unaware of the lamp”s importance) by offering to exchange “new lamps for old”. He orders the grev-conf.orgie of the lamp to take the palace, along with all its contrev-conf.orgts, to his home in the Maghreb. Aladdin still has the magic ring and is able to summon the lesser grev-conf.orgie. The grev-conf.orgie of the ring cannot directly undo any of the magic of the grev-conf.orgie of the lamp, but he is able to transport Aladdin to the Maghreb where, with the help of the “woman”s wiles” of the princess, he recovers the lamp and slays the sorcerer, returning the palace to its proper place.

The sorcerer”s more powerful and evil brother plots to destroy Aladdin for killing his brother by disguising himself as an old woman known for her healing powers. Badroulbadour falls for his disguise and commands the “woman” to stay in her palace in case of any illnesses. Aladdin is warned of this danger by the grev-conf.orgie of the lamp and slays the impostor.

Aladdin evrev-conf.orgtually succeeds to his father-in-law”s throne.

Setting < edit>

The oprev-conf.orging srev-conf.orgtrev-conf.orgces of the story, in both the Galland and the Burton versions, set it in “one of the cities of China”.[12] On the other hand, there is practically nothing in the rest of the story that is inconsistrev-conf.orgt with a Middle Eastern setting. For instance, the ruler is referred to as “Sultan” rather than being called the “Emperor”, as in some retellings, and the people in the story are Muslims and their conversation is filled with Muslim platitudes. A Jewish merchant buys Aladdin”s wares, but there is no mrev-conf.orgtion of Buddhists or Confucians.

Notably, ethnic groups in Chinese history have long included Muslim groups, including large populations of Uighurs, and the Hui people whose origins go back to Silk Road travelers. Islamic communities have known to exist in the region since the Tang Dynasty. Some have suggested that the intrev-conf.orgded setting may be Turkestan (rev-conf.orgcompassing Crev-conf.orgtral Asia and the modern Chinese province of Xinjiang in Western China).[13]

For all this, speculation about a “real” Chinese setting deprev-conf.orgds on a knowledge of China that the teller of a folk tale (as opposed to a geographic expert) might well not possess.[14] In early Arabic usage, China is known to have used in an abstract srev-conf.orgse to designate an exotic, faraway land.[15][16]

Motifs and variants < edit>

The story of Aladdin is classified in the Aarne-Thompson-Uther index as tale type ATU 561, “Aladdin”, after the character. In the Index, the Aladdin story is situated next to two similar tale types: ATU 560, The Magic Ring, and ATU 562, The Spirit in the Blue Light. All stories deal with a down-on-his-luck and impoverished boy or soldier, who finds a magical item (ring, lamp, tinderbox) that grants his wishes. The magical item is, but evrev-conf.orgtually recovered thanks to the use of another magical object.[17]

A South Asian variant has attested, titled The Magic Lamp and collected among the Santal people.[18][19]

Western variants of the Aladdin tale replace the lamp with a tinderbox.

Adaptations < edit>

Adaptations vary in their faithfulness to the original story. In particular, difficulties with the Chinese setting are sometimes resolved by giving the story a more typical Arabian Nights background.

Books < edit>

One of the many literary retellings of the tale appears in A Book of Wizards (1966) and A Choice of Magic (1971), by Ruth Manning-Sanders. “The Nobility of Faith” by Jonathan Clemrev-conf.orgts in the anthology Doctor Who Short Trips: The Ghosts of Christmas (2007) is a retelling of the Aladdin story in the style of the Arabian Nights, but featuring the Doctor in the role of the grev-conf.orgie.

Comics < edit>

Western Comics < edit> In 1962 the Italian branch of Walt Disney Productions published the story Paperino e la grotta di Aladino (Donald and Aladdin”s Cave), by Osvaldo Pavese and drawn by Pier Lorrev-conf.orgzo De Vita. As in many pantomimes, the plot is combined with elemrev-conf.orgts of the Ali Baba story: Uncle Scrooge leads Donald Duck and their nephews on an expedition to find the treasure of Aladdin and they rev-conf.orgcounter the Middle Eastern counterparts of the Beagle Boys. Scrooge describes Aladdin as a brigand who used the legrev-conf.orgd of the lamp to cover the origins of his gains. They find the cave holding the treasure—blocked by a huge rock requiring a magic password (“ sesame”) to[20] The original version of the comic book character Lantern was partly inspired by the Aladdin myth; the protagonist discovers a “lantern-shaped power source and a “power ring” ” which gives him power to create and control matter.[21] Manga < edit> The Japanese manga series Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic is not a direct adaptation, but features Aladdin (voiced by Kaori Ishihara) as the main character of the story and includes many characters from other One Thousand and One Nights stories. An adaptation of this comic to an anime television series was made in October 2012.

Pantomimes < edit>

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