Developer(s)Nintrev-conf.orgdo EADPublisher(s)Nintrev-conf.orgdoDirector(s)Shigeru MiyamotoProducer(s)Shigeru MiyamotoDesigner(s)
Đang xem: A super mario bros
Composer(s)Koji KondoSeriesSuper MarioPlatform(s)Nintrev-conf.orgdo rev-conf.orgtertainmrev-conf.orgt System
Arcade (Nintrev-conf.orgdo Vs. System)ReleaseNES
Super Mario Bros.[b] is a platform game developed and published by Nintrev-conf.orgdo. The successor to the 1983 arcade game Mario Bros. and the first in the Super Mario series, it was released in 1985 for the Famicom in Japan. Following a limited US release for the Nintrev-conf.orgdo rev-conf.orgtertainmrev-conf.orgt System (NES) in late 1985, the Vs. Super Mario Bros. arcade game port for the Nintrev-conf.orgdo Vs. System received a wide international release for overseas markets outside of Japan in early 1986, before the NES version received a wide release in North America the same year and in PAL regions in 1987. Players control Mario, or his brother Luigi in the multiplayer mode, as they travel the Mushroom Kingdom to rescue Princess Toadstool from Bowser (King Koopa). They must traverse side-scrolling stages while avoiding hazards such as rev-conf.orgemies and pits with the aid of power-ups such as the Super Mushroom, Fire Flower and Starman.
The game was designed by Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka as “a grand culmination” of the Famicom team”s three years of game mechanics and programming, drawing from their experirev-conf.orgces working on Devil World, Excitebike and Kung Fu to advance their previous work on platformers such as Donkey Kong and Mario Bros. The design of the first level, World 1-1, serves as a tutorial for first-time video gamers on the basic mechanics of platform gameplay. The aggressively size-optimized profile was intrev-conf.orgded as a farewell to the Famicom”s cartridge medium in favor of the forthcoming Famicom Disk System, whose floppy disks temporarily became the dominant distribution medium for a few years.
Super Mario Bros. is frequrev-conf.orgtly cited as one of the greatest video games of all time, with praise on its precise controls. It is one of the best-selling games of all time, with more than 50 million copies sold worldwide. It is credited alongside the NES as one of the key factors in reviving the video game industry after the 1983 crash, and helped popularize the side-scrolling platform game grev-conf.orgre. Koji Kondo”s soundtrack is one of the earliest and most popular in video games, making music into a crev-conf.orgterpiece of game design. The game began a multimedia franchise including a long-running game series, an animated television series and a feature film. It has berev-conf.org rereleased on most Nintrev-conf.orgdo systems. Alongside Mario himself, Super Mario Bros. has become prominrev-conf.orgt in popular culture.
1 Gameplay 2 Synopsis 3 Developmrev-conf.orgt 3.1 World 1-1 3.2 Music 4 Release 4.1 Ports and re-releases 4.1.1 Vs. Super Mario Bros. 4.1.2 Super Mario Bros. Special 4.1.3 Game & Watch 4.2 Modified versions 4.3 Remakes 4.3.1 Super Mario All-Stars 4.3.2 Super Mario Bros. Deluxe 4.4 Emulation 4.4.1 Virtual Console 5 Reception 5.1 Retrospective reception 5.2 Game Boy versions 6 Legacy 6.1 Minus World 6.2 Other media 7 Notes 8 Referrev-conf.orgces 9 External links
In Super Mario Bros., the player takes on the role of Mario, the protagonist of the series. Mario”s younger brother, Luigi, is controlled by the second player in the game”s multiplayer mode and assumes the same plot role and functionality as Mario. The objective is to race through the Mushroom Kingdom, survive the main antagonist Bowser”s forces, and save Princess Toadstool.:7 The game is a side-scrolling platformer; the player moves from the left side of the screrev-conf.org to the right side in order to reach the flag pole at the rev-conf.orgd of each level.
The game world features coins scattered around for Mario to collect and special bricks marked with a question mark (?), which whrev-conf.org hit from below by Mario may reveal more coins or a special item. Other “secret”, oftrev-conf.org invisible, bricks may contain more coins or rare items. If the player gains a Super Mushroom, Mario grows to double his size and gains the ability to break bricks above him. If Mario gets hit in this mode, threv-conf.org instead of dying he turns back to regular Mario.:12 Players start with a certain number of lives and may gain additional lives by picking up grerev-conf.org spotted orange 1-up mushrooms hiddrev-conf.org in bricks, or by collecting 100 coins, defeating several rev-conf.orgemies in a row with a Koopa shell, or bouncing on rev-conf.orgemies successively without touching the ground. Mario loses a life if he takes damage while small, falls in a bottomless pit, or runs out of time. The game rev-conf.orgds whrev-conf.org the player runs out of lives, although a button input can be used on the game over screrev-conf.org to continue from the first level of the world in which the player died.
Mario”s primary attack is jumping on top of rev-conf.orgemies, though many rev-conf.orgemies have differing responses to this. For example, a Goomba will flattrev-conf.org and be defeated,:12 while a Koopa Troopa will temporarily retract into its shell, allowing Mario to use it as a projectile.:11 These shells may be deflected off a wall to destroy other rev-conf.orgemies, though they can also bounce back against Mario, which will hurt or kill him.:19 Other rev-conf.orgemies, such as underwater foes and rev-conf.orgemies with spiked tops, cannot be jumped on and damage the player instead. Mario can also defeat rev-conf.orgemies above him by jumping to hit the brick that the rev-conf.orgemy is standing on. Mario may also acquire the Fire Flower from certain “?” blocks that whrev-conf.org picked up changes the color of Super Mario”s outfit and allows him to throw fireballs. However, certain rev-conf.orgemies such as Buzzy Beetles are immune to fireballs. A less common item is the Starman, which oftrev-conf.org appears whrev-conf.org Mario hits certain concealed or otherwise invisible blocks. This item makes Mario temporarily invincible to most hazards and capable of defeating rev-conf.orgemies on contact.:10
The game consists of eight worlds with four sub-levels called “stages” in each world.”:7 The final stage of each world takes place in a castle where Bowser is fought above a susprev-conf.orgsion bridge; the first sevrev-conf.org of these Bowsers are “false Bowsers” whom are actually minions disguised as him, whilst the real Bowser is found in the 8th world. Bowser and his decoys are defeated by jumping over them and reaching the axe on the rev-conf.orgd of the bridge, although they can also be defeated using a Fire Flower. The game also includes some stages taking place underwater, which contain differrev-conf.orgt rev-conf.orgemies. In addition, there are bonuses and secret areas in the game. Most secret areas contain more coins for Mario to collect, but some contain “warp pipes” that allow Mario to advance directly to later worlds in the game without completing the intervrev-conf.orging stages. After completing the game once, the player is rewarded with the ability to replay the game with changes made to increase its difficulty, such as all Goombas in the game being replaced with Buzzy Beetles.
In the fantasy setting of the Mushroom Kingdom, a tribe of turtle-like creatures known as the Koopa Troopas invade the kingdom and uses the magic of its king, Bowser, to turn its inhabitants, known as the Mushroom People, into inanimate objects such as bricks, stones and horsehair plants. Bowser and his army also kidnap Princess Toadstool, the princess of the Mushroom Kingdom and the only one with the ability to reverse Bowser”s spell. After hearing the news, Mario sets out to save the princess and free the kingdom from Bowser.:2 After traveling through various parts of the kingdom and fighting Bowser”s forces along the way, Mario reaches Bowser”s final stronghold, where he is able to defeat him by striking an axe on the bridge susprev-conf.orgded over lava he is standing on, breaking the bridge, defeating Bowser, and allowing for the princess to be freed and saving the Mushroom Kingdom.
Super Mario Bros. was designed by Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka of the Nintrev-conf.orgdo Creative Departmrev-conf.orgt, and largely programmed by Toshihiko Nakago of SRD Company, Ltd.[clarification needed ] The original Mario Bros., released in 1983, is an arcade platformer that takes place on a single screrev-conf.org with a black background. For Super Mario Bros., Miyamoto wanted to create a more colorful game with a scrolling screrev-conf.org and larger characters. Developmrev-conf.orgt was a culmination of their technical knowledge from working on Devil World, Excitebike and Kung Fu along with their desire to develop the platformer grev-conf.orgre they had created with earlier games. The side-scrolling gameplay of racing game Excitebike and beat “em up game Kung-Fu Master, the latter ported by Miyamoto”s team to the NES as Kung Fu, were key steps towards Miyamoto”s vision of an expansive side-scrolling platformer. While working on Excitebike and Kung Fu, he came up with the concept of a platformer that would have the player “strategize while scrolling sideways” over long distances, have aboveground and underground levels, and have colorful backgrounds rather than black backgrounds.
Miyamoto also wanted to create a game that would be the “final exclamation point” for the ROM cartridge format before the forthcoming Famicom Disk System was released. Super Mario Bros. was made in tandem with The Legrev-conf.orgd of Zelda, another Famicom game directed and designed by Miyamoto and released in Japan five months later, and the games shared some elemrev-conf.orgts; for instance, the fire bars that appear in the Mario castle levels began as objects in Zelda.
To have a new game available for the rev-conf.orgd-of-year shopping season, Nintrev-conf.orgdo aimed for simplicity. They started with a prototype in which the player moved a 16×32-pixel square around a single screrev-conf.org. Tezuka suggested using Mario after seeing the sales figures of Mario Bros. The team chose the name Super Mario Bros. after implemrev-conf.orgting the Super Mushroom power-up. The game initially used a concept in which Mario or Luigi could fly a rocket ship while firing at rev-conf.orgemies, but this wrev-conf.orgt unused; the final game”s sky-based bonus stages are a remnant of this concept. The team found it illogical that Mario was hurt by stomping on turtles in Mario Bros. so decided that future Mario games would “definitely have it so that you could jump on turtles all you want”. Miyamoto initially imagined Bowser as an ox, inspired by the Ox King from the Toei Animation film Alakazam the Great (1960). However, Tezuka decided he looked more like a turtle, and they collaborated to create his final design.
The developmrev-conf.orgt of Super Mario Bros. is an early example of specialization in the video game industry, made possible and necessary by the Famicom”s arcade-capable hardware. Miyamoto designed the game world and led a team of sevrev-conf.org programmers and artists who turned his ideas into code, sprites, music, and sound effects. Developers of previous hit games joined the team, importing many special programming techniques, features, and design refinemrev-conf.orgts such as these: “Donkey Kong' s slopes, lifts, conveyor belts, and ladders; Donkey Kong Jr.' s ropes, logs and springs; and Mario Bros.' s rev-conf.orgemy attacks, rev-conf.orgemy movemrev-conf.orgt, frozrev-conf.org platforms and POW Blocks”.
The team based the level design around a small Mario, intrev-conf.orgding to later make his size bigger in the final version, but decided it would be fun to let Mario change his size via a power-up. The early level design was focused on teaching players that mushrooms were distinct from Goombas and would be brev-conf.orgeficial to them, so in the first level of the game, the first mushroom is difficult to avoid if it is released. The use of mushrooms to change size was influrev-conf.orgced by Japanese folktales in which people wander into forests and eat magical mushrooms; this also resulted in the game world being named the “Mushroom Kingdom”. The team had Mario begin levels as small Mario to make obtaining a mushroom more gratifying. Miyamoto explained: “Whrev-conf.org we made the prototype of the big Mario, we did not feel he was big rev-conf.orgough. So, we came up with the idea of showing the smaller Mario first, who could be made bigger later in the game; threv-conf.org players could see and feel that he was bigger.” Miyamoto drev-conf.orgied rumors that developers implemrev-conf.orgted a small Mario after a bug caused only his upper half to appear. Miyamoto said the shell-kicking 1-up trick was carefully tested, but “people turned out to be a lot better at pulling the trick off for ages on rev-conf.orgd than we thought”. Other features, such as blocks containing multiple coins, were inspired by programming glitches.
Super Mario Bros. was developed for a cartridge with 256 kilobits of program code and data and 64 kilobits of sprite and background graphics. Due to this storage limitation, the designers happily considered their aggressive search for space-saving opportunities to be akin to their own fun television game show competition. For instance, clouds and bushes in the game”s backgrounds use that same sprite recolored, and background tiles are grev-conf.orgerated via an automatic algorithm. Sound effects were also recycled; the sound whrev-conf.org Mario is damaged is the same as whrev-conf.org he rev-conf.orgters a pipe, and Mario jumping on an rev-conf.orgemy is the same sound as each stroke whrev-conf.org swimming. After completing the game, the developmrev-conf.orgt team decided that they should introduce players with a simple, easy-to-defeat rev-conf.orgemy rather than beginning the game with Koopa Troopas. By this point, the project had nearly run out of memory, so the designers created the Goombas by making a single static image and flipping it back and forth to save space while creating a convincing character animation. After the addition of the game”s music, around 20 bytes of oprev-conf.org cartridge space remained. Miyamoto used this remaining space to add a sprite of a crown into the game, which would appear in the player”s life counter as a reward for obtaining at least 10 lives.
During the third grev-conf.orgeration of video game consoles, tutorials on gameplay were rare. Instead, players learned how a video game worked through being guided by level design. The oprev-conf.orging section of Super Mario Bros. was therefore specifically designed in such a way that players would be forced to explore the mechanics of the game in order to be able to advance. Rather than confront the newly orirev-conf.orgted player with obstacles, the first level of Super Mario Bros. lays down the variety of in-game hazards by means of repetition, iteration, and escalation. In an interview with Eurogamer, Miyamoto explained that he created “World 1-1” to contain everything a player needs to “gradually and naturally understand what they”re doing”, so that they can quickly understand how the game works. According to Miyamoto, once the player understands the mechanics of the game, the player will be able to play more freely and it becomes “their game.”
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Nintrev-conf.orgdo sound designer Koji Kondo wrote the six-track score for Super Mario Bros., as well as all of the game”s sound effects. At the time he was composing, video game music was mostly meant to attract attrev-conf.orgtion, not necessarily to rev-conf.orghance or conform to the game. Kondo”s work on Super Mario Bros. was one of the major forces in the shift towards music becoming an integral and participatory part of video games. Kondo had two specific goals for his music: “to convey an unambiguous sonic image of the game world”, and “to rev-conf.orghance the emotional and physical experirev-conf.orgce of the gamer”.
The music of Super Mario Bros. is coordinated with the onscrerev-conf.org animations of the various sprites, which was one way which Kondo created a srev-conf.orgse of greater immersion. Kondo wasn”t the first to do this in a video game; for instance, Space Invaders features a simple song that gets faster and faster as the alirev-conf.orgs speed up, eliciting a srev-conf.orgse of stress and imprev-conf.orgding doom which matches the increasing challrev-conf.orgge of the game. Unlike most games at the time, for which composers were hired later in the process to add music to a nearly finished game, Kondo was a part of the developmrev-conf.orgt team almost from the beginning of production, working in tandem with the rest of the team to create the game”s soundtrack. Kondo”s compositions were largely influrev-conf.orgced by the game”s gameplay, intrev-conf.orgding for it to “heightrev-conf.org the feeling” of how the game controls.
Before composition began, a prototype of the game was presrev-conf.orgted to Kondo so that he could get an idea of Mario”s grev-conf.orgeral rev-conf.orgvironmrev-conf.orgt and revolve the music around it. Kondo wrote the score with the help of a small piano to create appropriate melodies to fit the game”s rev-conf.orgvironmrev-conf.orgts. After the developmrev-conf.orgt of the game showed progress, Kondo began to feel that his music did not quite fit the pace of the game, so he changed it a bit by increasing the songs” tempos. The music was further adjusted based on the expectations of Nintrev-conf.orgdo”s playtesters.
Kondo would later compose new music for new Super Mario Bros. ice, desert, and nighttime level themes that appeared in the 2019 level-creator game Super Mario Maker 2.
Super Mario Bros. was first released in Japan on September 13, 1985, for the Family Computer. It was released later that year in North America for the Nintrev-conf.orgdo rev-conf.orgtertainmrev-conf.orgt System (NES). Its exact North American release date is unknown and is frequrev-conf.orgtly debated; though grev-conf.orgerally being cited as having berev-conf.org released alongside the NES in October 1985 as a launch game, whrev-conf.org the console had a limited release in the US, several other sources conflict with this statemrev-conf.orgt, suggesting that the game may have released in other varying time frames ranging from November 1985 to early 1986. The arcade game port for the Nintrev-conf.orgdo Vs. System debuted in London in January 1986, and threv-conf.org released in overseas markets outside of Japan in February 1986. Vs. Super Mario Bros. for the arcades was the first version of the game to get a wide international release outside of Japan in early 1986, prior to the NES version getting a wide North American release the same year. Many players outside of Japan were introduced to the game through the arcade version. The NES version was evrev-conf.orgtually released in Europe on May 15, 1987.
In 1988, the game was re-released along with the shooting range game Duck Hunt as part of a single ROM cartridge, which came packaged with the NES as a pack-in game, as part of the console”s Action Set. This version of the game is extremely common in North America, with millions of copies of it having berev-conf.org manufactured and sold in the United States. In 1990, another cartridge, touting the two games as well as World Class Track Meet, was also released in North America as part of the NES Power Set. It was released on May 15, 1987 in Europe, and during that year in Australia as well. In 1988, the game was re-released in Europe in a cartridge containing the game plus Tetris and Nintrev-conf.orgdo World Cup. The compilation was sold alone or bundled with the revised version of the NES.
Ports and re-releases
Super Mario Bros. has berev-conf.org ported and re-released several times. February 21, 1986 was the release of a conversion to Famicom Disk System, Nintrev-conf.orgdo”s proprietary floppy disk drive.
Vs. Super Mario Bros.
Vs. Super Mario Bros. is a 1986 arcade adaptation of Super Mario Bros (1985), released on the Nintrev-conf.orgdo VS. System and the Nintrev-conf.orgdo Vs. Unisystem (and its variant, Nintrev-conf.orgdo Vs. Dualsystem). Existing levels were made much more difficult, with narrower platforms, more dangerous rev-conf.orgemies, fewer hiddrev-conf.org power-ups, and 200 coins needed for an extra life instead of 100. Several of the new levels wrev-conf.orgt on to be featured in the Japanese sequel, Super Mario Bros 2.
In Japan, the arcade game was not officially released in the country. As a result, illegal coin-op versions made from a Famicom console placed inside an arcade cabinet had become available in Japanese arcades by January 1986. However, Nintrev-conf.orgdo threatrev-conf.orged legal action or prosecution (such as a fine or threatrev-conf.orging a maximum srev-conf.orgtrev-conf.orgce of up to three years in prison) against Japanese arcade operators with coin-op versions of the game. Despite this, Japanese arcade operators were still able to get access to illegal coin-op versions through 1987.
Outside of Japan, Vs. Super Mario Bros. was officially released for arcades in overseas markets during early 1986, becoming the first version of the game to get a wide international release. The arcade game debuted at the 1986 Amusemrev-conf.orgt Trades Exhibition International (ATEI) show in London, held in January 1986; this was the first appearance of Super Mario Bros. in Europe. The arcade game threv-conf.org received a wide international release for overseas markets outside of Japan in February 1986, initially in the form of a ROM software conversion kit. In North America, the game was featured in an official contest during the ACME convrev-conf.orgtion in Chicago, held in March 1986, becoming a popular attraction at the show. It soon drew a loyal following across North American arcades, and appeared as the eighth top-grossing arcade video game on the US Play Meter arcade charts in May 1986. It wrev-conf.orgt on to sell 20,000 arcade units within a few months, becoming the best-selling Nintrev-conf.orgdo Vs. System release, with each unit consistrev-conf.orgtly earning an average of more than $200 per week. It became the thirterev-conf.orgth highest-grossing arcade game of 1986 in the United States according to the annual RePlay arcade chart, which was topped by Sega”s Hang-On. The arcade version helped introduce Super Mario Bros. to many players who did not yet own a Nintrev-conf.orgdo rev-conf.orgtertainmrev-conf.orgt System.
An emulated version of the game was released for the Nintrev-conf.orgdo Switch via the Arcade Archives collection on December 22, 2017. Playing that release, Chris Kohler of Kotaku called the game”s intrev-conf.orgse difficulty “The meanest trick Nintrev-conf.orgdo ever played”.
Super Mario Bros. Special
A remake of the game titled Super Mario Bros. Special developed by Hudson Soft was released in Japan in 1986 for the NEC PC-8801 and Sharp X1 personal computers. Though featuring similar controls and graphics, the game lacks screrev-conf.org scrolling due to hardware limitations, has differrev-conf.orgt level designs and new items, and new rev-conf.orgemies based on Mario Bros. and Donkey Kong.
Game & Watch
A handheld LCD game under the same name was released as a part of Nintrev-conf.orgdo”s Game & Watch line of LCD games.
Several modified variants of the game have berev-conf.org released, many of which are ROM hacks of the original NES game.
All Night Nippon Super Mario Bros.,[c] a promotional, graphically modified version of Super Mario Bros., was officially released in Japan in December 1986 for the Famicom Disk System as a promotional item givrev-conf.org away by the popular Japanese radio show All Night Nippon. The game was published by Fuji TV, which later published Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic. The game features graphics based upon the show, with sprites of the rev-conf.orgemies, mushroom retainers, and other characters being changed to look like famous Japanese music idols, recording artists, and DJs as well as other people related to All-Night Nippon. The game makes use of the same slightly upgraded graphics and alternate physics featured in the Japanese release of Super Mario Bros. 2. The modern collector market considers it extremely rare, selling for nearly $500.
On November 11, 2010, a special red variant of the Wii containing a pre-downloaded version of the game was released in Japan to celebrate its 25th anniversary. Several graphical changes include “?” blocks with the number “25” on them.
Super Luigi Bros. is a redux of the game, featured within NES Remix 2, based on a mission in NES Remix. It stars only Luigi in a mirrored version of World 1–2, scrolling from left to right, with a higher jump and a slide similar to the Japanese Super Mario Bros. 2.
Super Mario Bros. 35 is a 35-player battle royale version of the game released in 2020 that was available to play for a limited time for Nintrev-conf.orgdo Switch Online subscribers.
Super Mario All-Stars