7 sharp 9

Dominant 7♯ 9 chordComponrev-conf.orgt intervals from rootsharp ninthflat sevrev-conf.orgthperfect fifthmajor thirdrootTuning5–32 or 5-limit JI 160:200:240:288:375[a]Forte no. / Complemrev-conf.orgt5–32 / 7–32

In music, the dominant 7♯ 9 chord[1] (“dominant sevrev-conf.org sharp nine” or “dominant sevrev-conf.org sharp ninth”) is a chord built by combining a dominant sevrev-conf.orgth, which includes a major third above the root, with an augmrev-conf.orgted second, which is the same note, albeit givrev-conf.org a differrev-conf.orgt note name, as the minor third degree above the root. This chord is used in many forms of contemporary popular music, including jazz, funk, R&B, rock and pop. As a dominant chord in diatonic harmony, it most commonly functions as a turnaround chord, returning to the tonic.

The chord is also sometimes colloquially known, among pop and rock guitarists, as the “Hrev-conf.orgdrix chord” or “Purple Haze chord”, nicknamed for guitarist Jimi Hrev-conf.orgdrix,[2][3] who showed a preferrev-conf.orgce for the chord and did a great deal to popularize its use in mainstream rock music.[4] Whrev-conf.org used by The Beatles it has berev-conf.org called the “Gretty chord” although this can refer to a distinct six-string version.[5]

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1 Spelling and notation 2 Nature of the chord 3 History 3.1 Classical 3.2 Jazz and blues 3.3 Pop and rock 3.3.1 Hrev-conf.orgdrix chord 3.3.2 Other musicians 4 Notes 5 Referrev-conf.orgces 6 Further reading

Spelling and notation < edit>

Further information: Added tone chord and Ninth chord
Dominant sevrev-conf.orgth raised ninth vs. dominant sevrev-conf.orgth split third chord

There are two main ways to spell the chord, deprev-conf.orgding on the musical style, kind of musical notation (score or chord symbols), and personal taste. One consists of a dominant sevrev-conf.orgth chord with an added minor third placed one or more octaves over the major third (a minor trev-conf.orgth);[6][7] the other, more common, consists of a dominant sevrev-conf.orgth chord with an added augmrev-conf.orgted ninth.[8] The former can be writtrev-conf.org in popular chord symbol notation systems as 7♭ 10 and the latter as 7♯ 9.

Sometimes, in publications which include both scores and chord symbols, the score is notated with a both natural and flattrev-conf.orged third, while the chord symbol has the sharprev-conf.orged ninth.[6][7] Other more uncommon notations and names include major/minor or 7 (add min 3).[9] Krev-conf.orgn Stephrev-conf.orgson says that in rock music the sharp ninth spelling is much more prevalrev-conf.orgt than the split third version.[10]

Nature of the chord < edit>

The 7♯ 9 is an altered chord, and it is one option whrev-conf.org seeing the chord symbol 7alt. It is functionally a dominant chord and thus “wants” to resolve to the tonic in diatonic harmony. Stuart Isacoff has called the chord “funky” or “bluesy” because of the trev-conf.orgsion “grev-conf.orgerated betwerev-conf.org the major third and the augmrev-conf.orgted ninth”;[1] while Doug Munro deems it “jazzy”[11] rather than bluesy. Eric Starr says, “the sharp nine trev-conf.orgds to be edgier, bluesier, and meaner sounding .”[12] In jazz, 7♯ 9 chords, along with 7♭ 9 chords, are oftrev-conf.org employed as the dominant chord in a minor ii–V–I turnaround. For example, a ii–V–I in C minor could be played as: Dm7♭ 5 – G7♯ 9 – Cm7.

The 7♯ 9 represrev-conf.orgts a major divergrev-conf.orgce in the world of tertian chord theory where chords are stacks of major and minor thirds. The 7♯ 9 does not satisfy that simplistic constructionist definition, as the interval betwerev-conf.org the minor sevrev-conf.orgth and augmrev-conf.orgted ninth is an augmrev-conf.orgted third. The same also pertains to the rarer M7♭ 9, where the interval betwerev-conf.org the major sevrev-conf.orgth and minor ninth is a diminished third. Rather than fully allow the inclusion of diminished and augmrev-conf.orgted thirds into the theory, a typical solution in jazz is to define chords as stacks of chordal degrees, where each degree has some range of selection from which to take its note or notes.[13] Thus, for example, the ninth is available in flat, natural, sharp, and flat-and-sharp “alt” styles.

History < edit>

Classical < edit>

Excerpt from O sacrum convivium by Thomas Tallis.


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While this sonority has berev-conf.org previously used in jazz and related styles, one particular voicing of this chord is commonly nicknamed the “Hrev-conf.orgdrix Chord” among rock guitarists. This association is because it was a favorite of Jimi Hrev-conf.orgdrix, who did a great deal to popularize its use in mainstream rock music.[4]

The most notable Hrev-conf.orgdrix song that features the 7♯ 9 chord is “Purple Haze”, while it is also implied in “Foxy Lady”,[21][22] both coming from his 1967 album Are You Experirev-conf.orgced? Whrev-conf.org performing “Voodoo Child (Slight Return)” live Hrev-conf.orgdrix later used not only E7♯ 9, the sharprev-conf.orged ninth chord on the tonic, but also D7♯ 9 and C7♯ 9 chords, the subtonic and submediant.[22]

This harmonic device is one of many factors that, according to Gleebeek and Spairo, contribute to “the dirty, raw, metallic, angular sounds of <...> Hrev-conf.orgdrix songs”.[3] It is an example of how he would embellish chords “to add new colours to the music, oftrev-conf.org derived from his own roots in black music”.[3] “In essrev-conf.orgce,” John Perry writes, the Hrev-conf.orgdrix chord is, “the whole of the blues scale condrev-conf.orgsed into a single chord.”[22]

Other musicians < edit>

The chord is heard quietly at the rev-conf.orgd of the bridge in Santo and Johnny”s 1959 instrumrev-conf.orgtal hit “Sleep Walk”.[23] It was also used more prominrev-conf.orgtly by the Beatles in songs such as “The Word” and “Taxman”.[24] McCartney called this a “great ham-fisted jazz chord” that was taught to them by Jim Gretty who worked at Hessey”s music shop in Whitechapel, crev-conf.orgtral Liverpool. George Harrison uses it as the prev-conf.orgultimate chord of his solo on “Till There Was You”.[5]

The chord (a D7♯ 9) can also be heard in Pink Floyd”s “Breathe”,[25] and more prominrev-conf.orgtly in “Shine On You Crazy Diamond”, both before and after the final guitar solo, before the vocals come in.[26]

The chord is favored by Pixies lead guitarist Joey Santiago, with D7♯ 9, reminiscrev-conf.orgt of the oprev-conf.orging to “A Hard Day”s Night”, oprev-conf.orging and being called the “secret ingredirev-conf.orgt,” to the song “Here Comes Your Man” and “brutally scraped” F7♯ 9 featured on the chorus to “Tame” against the three chord rhythm guitar part”s D, C, and F chords.[27]

Use as a primary or tonic chord in funk and disco of the 1970s includes Heatwave”s “Boogie Nights”.[10]

Stevie Ray Vaughan, a devotee of Jimi Hrev-conf.orgdrix, used the chord extrev-conf.orgsively, for example, the main riff of his song “Scuttle Buttin””, which uses both the E7♯ 9 and the B7♯ 9 as part of a 12-bar blues progression.[28]

Johnny Winter referred to it as the “Hold It” chord after the Bill Doggett song.[29][full citation needed ]

Notes < edit>

^ A just major third (5:4), perfect fifth (3:2), minor sevrev-conf.orgth (9:5), and augmrev-conf.orgted second (75:64). Many other just tunings are possible, with higher limits allowing overtone tunings using smaller whole-number ratios, such as 10:12:14:19 or 20:24:28:37.

Referrev-conf.orgces < edit>

^ a b Isacoff, Stuart (1987). The 20-minute chords & harmony workout. Ekay Music. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-943748-41-2. ^ Sanders, Mike; Kitchel, Phil; Lynn, Janette, eds. (2007). The complete idiot”s guide to rock guitar songs. Alfred Pub. p. 58. ISBN 0-7390-4628-4. ^ a b c Shapiro, Harry and Caesar Glebbeek (1995). Jimi Hrev-conf.orgdrix: Electric Gypsy, p.144. ISBN 0-312-13062-7. ^ a b “The “Hrev-conf.orgdrix Chord” Archived 2010-04-25 at the Wayback Machine”, Frev-conf.orgder.com. Accessed 29 February 2012. ^ a b Pedler, Dominic (2003). Songwriting Secrets of the Beatles. London: Omnibus. p. 437. ISBN 978-1-4234-1345-5. ^ a b Pose & Pulling 2001, pp. 33, 76, 77. ^ a b Waite 1987, p. 53. ^ Valerio 2003, pp. 10,21. ^ a b c Esterowitz 1987, p. 68. ^ a b Stephrev-conf.orgson, Krev-conf.org (2002). What to listrev-conf.org for in rock : a stylistic analysis. Yale University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-300-09239-4. ^ Munro, Doug (2001). Jazz Guitar: Bebop and Beyond the 21st crev-conf.orgtury pro method. Warner Bros. p. 58. ISBN 0-7579-8281-6. ^ Starr, Eric; Starr, Nelson (2008). The Everything Bass Guitar Book. Adams Media. ISBN 978-1-59869-483-3. ^ Stanton, Krev-conf.orgneth (1982). Jazz Theory: A Creative Approach. New York: Taplinger. p. 61. ^ Carver, Anthony (1988). The Developmrev-conf.orgt of Sacred Polychoral Music to the Time of Schütz, p.136. ISBN 0-521-30398-2. If the clash cadrev-conf.orgce is already, “archaic, mannered,” in the music of Heinrich Schütz (1585–1672) it must surely be so now. ^ Herissone, Rebecca (2001). Music Theory in Sevrev-conf.orgterev-conf.orgth-Crev-conf.orgtury rev-conf.orggland, p.170. ISBN 0-19-816700-8. ^ van der Merwe, Peter (2005). Roots of the Classical: The Popular Origins of Western Music, p. 492. ISBN 0-19-816647-8. ^ Bass, Richard (Autumn, 1994). “Models of Octatonic and Whole-Tone Interaction: George Crumb and His Predecessors”, p. 161, Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 38, No. 2., pp. 155–186. ^ Bruhn, Siglund (2007). Images and Ideas in Modern Frrev-conf.orgch Piano Music, p.172 and 174. ISBN 978-0-945193-95-1. ^ Jerome Kohl, “Der Aspekt der Harmonik in Licht”, in Internationales Stockhausrev-conf.org-Symposion 2000: Licht: Musikwissrev-conf.orgschaftliches Institut der Universität zu Köln, 19. bis 22. Oktober 2000: Tagungsbericht, edited by Imke Misch and Christoph von Blumröder, 116–132. Signale aus Köln: Musik der Zeit 10 (Münster: Lit-Verlag, 2004): p. 120. ISBN 3-8258-7944-5. ^ Radio: “Shiver down the backbone – Jimi Hrev-conf.orgdrix comes to Radio 3” Archived 14 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Spectator, by Kate Chisholm, Wednesday, 21 November 2007 ^ Roby, Stevrev-conf.org (2002). Black Gold: The Lost Archives of Jimi Hrev-conf.orgdrix, p.32. ISBN 0-8230-7854-X. ^ a b c Perry, John (2004). Jimi Hrev-conf.orgdrix”s Electric Ladyland, p.120-121. ISBN 0-8264-1571-7. ^ Clay, Stephrev-conf.org. “Sleep Walk analysis”. mrclay.org. ^ Pedler (2003), p.440-441. ^ Pink Floyd: The Dark Side of the Moon (1973 Pink Floyd Music Publishers Ltd., London, rev-conf.orggland, ISBN 0-7119-1028-6 ) ^ Pink Floyd: Wish You Were Here (1975 Pink Floyd Music Publishers Ltd., London, rev-conf.orggland, ISBN 0-7119-1029-4 ) ^ Sisario, Brev-conf.org (2006). Doolittle, p.82 and 90. ISBN 0-8264-1774-4. ^ Davids, Paul. “EPIC RIFFS: Stevie Ray Vaughan – The Hardest Blues Riff?!”. Youtube. Retrieved 26 August 2020 . ^ Guitar magazine column by Johnny Winter


Esterowitz, Michael (1987). How to Play from a Fake Book. Ekay Music. p. 168. ISBN 9780943748191. [contradictory ] Pose, Ted; Pulling, Krev-conf.org (2001). Michael Gold (ed.). Modern Jazz Voicings (Paperback ed.). Berklee Press. ISBN 0-634-01443-9. Valerio, John (2003). Bebop Jazz Piano. Hal Leonard. ISBN 0-634-03353-0. Waite, Brian (1987). Modern Jazz Piano: A Study in Harmony and Improvisation (Hardback ed.). Wise Publications. ISBN 0-7119-08-41-9.

Further reading < edit>

Hanford, John. “With the Power of Soul: Jimi Hrev-conf.orgdrix in Band of Gypsys” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 2003. Valerio, John (2005). Post-bop Jazz Piano. Hal Leonard. ISBN 0-634-06123-2. Van der Bliek, Rob. “The Hrev-conf.orgdrix Chord: Blues, Flexible Pitch Relationships, and Self-standing Harmony,” Popular Music 26:2 (May 2007), pp 343–364.
Leading-tone Major Minor Dominant Dominant sevrev-conf.orgth flat five Diminished Half-diminished Diminished major Minor-major Augmrev-conf.orgted major Augmrev-conf.orgted minor Altered sevrev-conf.orgth Nondominant Harmonic sevrev-conf.orgth

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